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Optic Nerve : OPTIC NEURITIS (PAPILLITIS AND RETROBULBAR NEURITIS

CILIOOPTIC VEIN  |  DRUSEN OF OPTIC NERVE  |  FLUID ENLARGEMENT OF RETROBULBAR OPTIC NERVE OR SHEATH  |  HYPEREMIA OF OPTIC DISC  |  ISCHEMIC OPTIC NEUROPATHY  |  LINEAR HEMORRHAGE ON OPTIC DISC  |  NEOVASCULARIZATION OF OPTIC DISC  |  NEURORETINITIS  |  OPTIC-NERVE ATROPHY  |  OPTIC-NERVE ATROPY AND DEAFNESS  |  SYNDROMES AND DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH OPTIC ATROPY  |  OPTIC-NERVE HYPOPLASIA  |  OPTIC NEURITIS (PAPILLITIS AND RETROBULBAR NEURITIS  |  PSEUDOOPTIC NEURITIS  |  OPTICOCILIARY SHUNTS  |  PAPILLEDEMA (SWELLING OF OPTIC DISC)  |  PSEUDOPAPILLEDEMA  |  PERIPAPILLARY SUBRETINAL NEOVASCULARIZATION  |  PIGMENTED TUMORS OF OPTIC DISC  |  PSEUDOGLAUCOMATUS ATROPHY OF OPTIC DISC  |  TEMPORALLY DISPLACED DISC (DRAGGED DISC)

This condition is characterized by progressive loss of vision and possibly complete amaurosis; pain in or behind the eye, especially on lateral movement; Marcus Gunn pupillary phenomenon; and central or paracentral scotoma.

1. Demyelinating and degenerative diseases

 A. Adrenoleukodystrophy
 B. Hereditary ataxia (Brown-Marie syndrome)
 C. Multiple sclerosis
 D. Opticomyelitis (Devic disease)

2. Drugs, poisons, vaccines

 A. Drugs, including the following: 

acetohexamide
acetyldigitoxin
alcohol
allobarbital
aminosalicylate
aminosalicylic acid (?)
amiodarone (?)
amitriptyline
amobarbital
aprobarbital
barbital
bromisovalum
broxyquinoline
bupivacaine (?)
butabarbital
butalbital
butallylonal
butethal
calcitriol (?)
caramiphen
carbromal
carmustine
chloral hydrate (?)
chloramphenicol
chloroprocaine (?)
chlorpropamide (?)
cholecalciferol
cisplatin
clindamycin
clophene (?)
cyclobarbital
cyclopentobarbital
cycloserine (?)
deferoxamine
desipramine
deslanoside
dextrothyroxine (?)
didanosine
diethylpropion (?)
digitalis
digitoxin
digoxin
diiodohydroxyquin
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (adsorbed)
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis
diphtheria toxoid (adsorbed)
disulfiram
ergocalciferol (?)
ergonovine
ergotamine
ethambutol
ethchlorvynol
ethionamide
etidocaine (?)
etoposide
etretinate
fenoprofen
ferrocholinate (7)
ferrous fumarate (7)
ferrous gluconate (7)
ferrous succinate
ferrous sulfate (7)
fluorouracil (7)
gitalin
glyburide
heptabarbital
hexethal
hexobarbital
ibuprofen
imipramine
indomethacin (?)
influenza virus vaccine
interferon alpha, beta, or gamma
iodide and iodine solutions and compounds
iodochlorhydroxyquin
iodoquinol
iron dextran (?)
iron sorbitex (?)
isocarboxazid (?)
isoniazid
isotretinoin
kanamycin (?)
lanatoside C
levothyroxine (?)
lidocaine
liothyronine (?)
liotrix (?)
measles and rubella virus vaccine (live)
measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine
mephobarbital
mepivacaine (?)
metharbital
methitural
methohexital
methyl alcohol
methylergonovine
methysergide
metronidazole(?)
minoxidil(?)
mumps virus vaccine (live)
naproxen
nialamide (?)
nitrofurantoin (?)
nortriptyline
nystatin
oral contraceptives
ouabain
oxyphenbutazone
penicillamine
pentobarbital
phenobarbital
phenylbutazone
piroxicam (?)
poliovirus vaccine (?)
polysaccharide-iron complex (?)
prilocaine (?)
primidone
probarbital
procaine (?)
procarbazine
propoxycaine (7)
protripty line
quinacrine
quinidine
rabies immune globulin
rabies vaccine
radioactive iodides
rifampin (?)
rubella and mumps virus vaccine (live)
rubella virus vaccine (live)
secobarbital
smallpox vaccine
streptomycin
sulfacetamide
sulfachlorpyridazine
sulfacytine
sulfadiazine
sulfadimethoxine
sulfamerazine
sulfameter
sulfamethizole
sulfamethoxazole
sulfamethoxypyridazine
sulfanilamide
sulfaphenazole
sulfapyridine
sulfasalazine
sulfathiazole
sulfisoxazole
sulindac (?)
talbutal
tamoxifen (?)
tetanus immune globulin (?)
tetanus toxoid (?)
thiamylal
thiopental
thyroglobulin (?)
thyroid (?)
tolazamide
tolbutamide
trichloroethylene
tryparsamide
vaccine (adsorbed)
vinbarbital
vinblastine
vincristine
vitamin D
vitamin D2 (?)
vitamin D3 (?)

B. Poisons (inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion): alcohol, arsenicals (inorganic, gaseous, or organic), carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, chlorodinitrobenzene and dinitrobenzene, copper, dinitrotoluene, Lysol solution, mercury, methyl bromide, methyl alcohol, siderosis (exogenous: intraocular foreign body or endogenous: iron metabolism disorders), tobacco, toluene (methyl benzene), trichlorethylene, tricresil phosphate, venoms (e.g., bee sting), vinyl benzene (styrene)
C. Vaccines and toxoids: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (bCG) vaccination, diphtheria toxoid (absorbed), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (absorbed), influenza virus vaccine, measles or mumps or rubella live vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, rabies immune globulin, rabies vaccine, smallpox vaccine, tetanus immune globulin (?), tetanus toxoid (?), bee and wasp sting.

3. Infection and inflammation

 A. Bacterial
  (1) Anthrax
  (2) Botulism (toxin from clostridium botulinum)
  (3) Brucellosis (undulant fever)
  (4) Diphtheria
  (5) Endocarditis
  (6) Leptospirosis (Weil syndrome)
  (7) Lyme disease (borreliosis, relapsing fever)
  (8) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  (9) Pertussis (whooping cough)
  (10) Streptococcus (scarlet fever)
  (11) Syphilis (acquired lues)
  (12) Tuberculosis
  (13) Typhoid fever (abdominal typhus)
 B. Fungal
  (1) Candidiasis
  (2) Coccidioidomycosis
  (3) Mucormycosis
  (4) Torulosis (cryptococcus)
 C. Viral
  (1) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  (2) Bornholm disease (epidemic pleurodynia)
  (3) Chickenpox (varicella)
  (4) Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
  (5) Equine encephalitis
  (6) Hepatitis A, B, C
  (7) Infectious mononucleosis
  (8) Influenza
  (9) Measles (rubeola)
  (10) Mumps
  (11) Pappataci fever (sandfly fever)
  (12) Poliomyelitis
  (13) Smallpox
  (14) Yellow fever
 D. Protozoan
  (1) Malaria
  (2) Toxoplasmosis
  (3) Trypanosomiasis
 E. Rickettsia
  (1) Boutonneuse fever rickettsia (Marseilles fever)
  (2) Japanese river fever (typhus)
  (3) Q fever
  (4) Rocky Mountain spotted fever
 F. Orbit
  (1) Herpes zoster
  (2) Infections of the gasserian ganglion
  (3) von Mikulicz-Radecki syndrome (dacryosialoadenopathy)
  (4) Rollet syndrome (orbital apex syndrome)
  (5) Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (painful ophthalmoplegia)
 G. Helminth infestations
  (1) Acanthamoeba
  (2) Echinococcosis (hydatid cyst)
  (3) Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
  (4) Toxocariasis (nematode ophthalmia syndrome)
  (5) Trichinellosis
 H. Spread from sphenoid and posterior ethmoidal sinuses
 I. Postinfectious
  (1) Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute infectious neuritis)
  (2) Reye syndrome (acute encephalopathy syndrome)
  (3) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (Dawson disease)
  (4) Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (uveitis-vitiligo-alopecia-poliosis syndrome)

4. Noninfectious arteritis, hypersensitivity vasculitis

 A. Involving small vessels
  (1) Drugs
  (2) Henoch-Schönlein
 B. Involving small and medium-sized vessels
  (1) Polyarteritis nodosa (Kussmaul disease)
  (2) Necrotizing granulomatous arthritis
   a. Sarcoidosis
   b. Wegener granulomatosis (Wegener syndrome)
  (3) Buerger disease (thromboangiitis obliterans)
  (4) Localized arteritis
   a. Idiopathic
   b. Polyarteritis nodosa
 C. Involving large, medium and small vessels
  (1) Arteritis in collagen vascular disease
   a. Behçet disease (oculobuccogenital syndrome)
   b. Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS; scleroderma)
   c. Rheumatoid arthritis
   d. SLE
  (2) Giant cell (temporal) arteritis
  (3) Takayasu syndrome (aortic arch syndrome)
 D. Idiopathic paroxysmal digital cyanosis (Raynaud disease)
 E. Multiple myeloma (Kahler disease)

5. Others

 A. Chorioretinitis
 B. Cystic fibrosis syndrome
 C. Hutchinson-Gilfor (progeria) syndrome
 D. Hysteria
 E. McCune-Albright syndrome (fibrous dysplasia)
 F. Naegeli syndrome (melanophoric nevus)
 G. Paget disease (osteitis deformans)
 H. Parkinson syndrome (paralysis agitans)
 I. Relapsing polychondritis
 J. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (erythema multiforme exudativum)
 K. Uveitis, including sympathetic ophthalmia

6. Systemic diseases

 A. Endocrine
  (1) Diabetes mellitus
  (2) Hypoparathyroidism
  (3) Hyperthyroidism (Basedow syndrome)
  (4) Hyperthyroidism
  (5) Juvenile diabetes-dwarfism-obesity syndrome (Mauriac syndrome)
  (6) Lactation
  (7) Pregnancy
  (8) Puberty
  (9) Retinohypophysary syndrome (Lijo Pavia-Lis syndrome)
 B. Nutritional diseases
  (1) Beriberi (vitamin B deficiency)
  (2) Carcinomatosis
  (3) Hyperemesis gravidarum
  (4) Pellagra (vitamin B deficiency)
 C. Rheumatic disease, arthritis
  (1) Felty syndrome
  (2) Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Still disease)
  (3) Polymyalgia rheumatica
  (4) Reiter syndrome (polyarthritis enterica)
  (5) Rheumatoid arthritis
 D. Miscellaneous
  (1) Amyloidosis (Lubarsch-Pick syndrome)
  (2) Chronic glomerulonephritis with secondary renal hypertension or    pyelonephritis
  (3) Emphysema
   (4) Hepatic failure
  (5) Hypertension
  (6) Porphyria
  (7) Trauma
 A. Mechanical
 B. Radiation
  (1) Electromagnetic
   a. High voltage/lighting
   b. Microwave
   c. Laser bum
   d. X-ray
  (2) Radioactive source
   a. a-ruthenium
   b. b-betatron
   c. g-cobalt
   d. pisotope

8. Tumors

 A. Craniopharyngioma
 B. Hemangiopericytoma of optic nerve
 C. Myeloproliferative diseases
  (1) Hodgkin disease
  (2) Leukemia
  (3) Lymphoma
 D. Neuroblastoma

Beck RW, et al. Fellow eye abnormalities in acute unilateral optic neuritis. Ophthalmology 1993; 100:691-698.

Fraunfelder FT, Fraunfelder FW. Drug-induced ocular side effects and drug interactions. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 200 l.

Maltzman JS, et al. Optic neuropathy occurring after bee and wasp sting. Ophthalmology 2000; 107:193-195.

Straussberg R, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infection associated with encephalitis and optic neuritis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1993; 30:262-263.

Extracted Table (Several unreadable titles)

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