Congenital ocular motility disorder is characterized by limited abduction or limited adduction. The palpebral fissure narrows on attempted adduction.
1. Type 1 characteristics
a. A or V phenomena
b. Defective abduction
c. Palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction
d. Retraction of the globe
e. Updrift or downdrift of the affected eye on adduction or attempted abduction
2. Type 2 characteristics
a. Abduction appears to be normal or only slightly limited
b. Distinct narrowing of the palpebral fissure and retraction of the globe on attempted adduction.
c. Limitation or complete palsy of adduction with exotropia of the paretic eye.
3. Type 3 characteristics
a. Limitation or absence of both abduction and adduction of the affected eye
b. Globe retraction and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction
Duane A. Congenital deficiency of abduction associated with impairment of adduction, retraction movements, contraction of the palpebral fissure, and oblique movements of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1996; 114: 1255-1256.
Duane TD, et al. Pseudo-Duane's retraction syndrome. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1977; 74:122-132.