Pendular nystagmus comprises oscillations that are approximately equal in rate in two directions; they may be horizontal or vertical.
1. Albinism in which the macula does not develop
2. Aniridia (see p. 364-365)
3. Bilateral chorioretinal lesions involving the macula in early infancy (congenital toxoplasmosis)
4. Brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction
*5. Congenital-cause unknown, may be inherited as autosomal dominant recessive or X-linked recessive trait; not infrequently associated with astigmatism and convergent strabismus
*6. Congenital cataracts
7. Congenital glaucoma
8. Corneal scars
9. Demyelinating disease
10. High myopia of early life
11. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
12. Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome (retinitis pigmentosa-polydactyly-adiposogenital syndrome)
13. Leber congenital amaurosis
14. Monocular or binocular visual deprivation
15. Optic nerve hypoplasia, coloboma
*16. Total color blindness (monochromatism)
17. Work in poor illuminations (e.g., mining) (rare)
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