Spasm of convergence occurs with spasm of accommodation and miosis (i.e., spasm of the near reflex).
1. Encephalitis-accompanied with nystagmus
2. Hysteria-may be confused with lateral rectus palsy
3. Labyrinthine fistulas
4. Kenny syndrome
5. Oculogyric crisis in myasthenia gravis
6. Paralysis of horizontal gaze with compensatory spasm of near reflex
7. Parinaud syndrome (divergence paralysis)
8. Tabes dorsalis
10. Wernicke syndrome (avitaminosis B1)
Feiler-Ofry V, et al. Lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe Syndrome). Br J Ophthalmol 1979; 63:694-698.
Thompson RA, Zynde RH. Convergence spasm associated with Wernicke's encephalopathy. Neurology 1969; 19: 711-712.