*1. Duane syndrome (retraction syndrome)-cocontraction of horizontal rectus muscles, lateral rectus, and both vertical muscles, or medial and inferior rectus muscles or fibrotic lateral rectus
A. Acrorenoocular syndrome
B. Goldenhar syndrome
C. Hanhart syndrome
E. Okihiro syndrome
F. Wildervanck syndrome (Klippel-Feil anomaly with Duane syndrome)
2. Fibrosis secondary to strabismus surgery
3. Medial wall fracture with incarceration of orbit contents-retraction of globe with attempted abduction
4. Orbital mass
A. Dermoid cyst
5. Retraction of convergent nonfixating eye associated with loss of conjugate lateral gaze and occurrence of the near reflex on attempted lateral gaze
6. Thyroid myopathy
Holtz SJ. Congenital ocular anomalies associated with Duane's retraction syndrome, the nevus of ota, and axial anisometropia. Am J Ophthalmol 1974; 74:729-731.
Isenberg SJ. The eye in infancy. Chicago: Year Book Medical, 1989.