Exudate permeates epithelium to such an extent that removal of membrane is difficult and a raw bleeding surface results. Membranous conjunctivitis can lead to symblepharon, ankyloblepharon, and entropion with trichiasis.
1. Chemical irritants
A. Acids, such as acetic or lactic
*B. Alkalis, such as ammonia or lime
C. Metallic salts, such as silver nitrate or copper sulfate
2. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
3. Ligneous conjunctivitis-chronic, cause unknown
6. Uncommon-actinomyces, glandular fever, measles, Neisseria catarrhalis, variola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, herpes simplex, Leptothrix, and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (type adenovirus)
Fedukowicz HB. External infections of the eye: bacterial. Viral, and mycotic, 3rd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1984.
Roy FH. Ocular syndromes and systemic diseases, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.